The history of computing is defined by improving the productivity of individuals and enterprises. The transition from command-line interfaces (CLIs) in the 1970s to graphical user interfaces (GUIs) in the 1980s enabled the abstraction of complex syntax with visual icons and windows. Then, the flattening of the computing learning curve accelerated the adoption of personal computers (PCs) through the 1990s to spawn the World Wide Web and the internet applications built on top of it. At the turn of the last century, touchscreen phones and mobile operating systems placed the power of computing in our palms. Now, generative artificial intelligence (AI) is accelerating the adoption of digital applications and creating the next epochal shift in human-computer interaction.

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